Forest management does not end with felling. The end of one thing is the beginning of another. If you want to grow a forest that will be valuable for future generations, there is no getting away from planting a new crop, i.e. a new generation of forest. The process starts with preparing the land and selecting the right tree species for the site. Planting is largely done manually – bare-root plants are planted with a shovel or wedge, and pot plants with a planting pipe.
Spring is the best time for planting, but it is also possible to plant in autumn before the first frosts.
Cultivation is a type of maintenance aimed at improving the growing conditions of small forest trees, in order to ensure their ability to compete with lush grasses and fast-growing scrub.
However, the majority of the time we are talking not about felling but mostly mowing or trampling. These operations have to be repeated every year until the trees grow above the surrounding grass.
Clearance falling is a type of thinning that aims to improve the growing conditions of young plants and shaping the species composition of the stand, carried out in forests aged 4 to 20 years. At this age, the stand is very dense and the trees compete for light, water and nutrients. Low-value tree species are often the fastest growing, choking out valuable coniferous and deciduous ones.
During clear-cutting, the first trees to be removed are those that hinder the growth of the main species of the future stand, as well as crooked, damaged and dying trees.
Thinning is a type of maintenance cutting aimed at increasing the value of a stand by creating good growing conditions for the highest quality trees. Thinning reduces competition for nutrients and water and increases the resistance of the stand to storm and snow damage, diseases and insect pests. Thinnings are carried out in forests between 20 and 50 years old and the number of thinnings over the life cycle of a stand varies depending on the stand type and forest management objectives.
During thinning process, sick, dying or dead trees are removed first, followed by pruned, malformed and damaged, and finally, overly dense healthy trees.
Sanitary felling is a type of thinning, the purpose of which is to improve the health of the forest by removing diseased, damaged, dying or dead trees from the stand. The basis for such felling is an opinion issued by a forest protection expert. Diseases, storms and pests are the most common reasons for sanitary felling. For example, eradication of storm debris in a large area, removal of trees that are sources of infection or breeding pests, removal of trees with external damage.
It is important to ensure that the density of the forest does not drop below 30% as a result of sanitary felling.